Job Quality and Income

This section examines measures of economic performance. In particular, measures of job quality and income provide insight into the progress made in raising productivity and prosperity.

University Economist Reports

Causes of Arizona's Low Incomes, September 2019
This extensive paper ascertains the reasons why incomes in Arizona are so low, and have declined over time, relative to the nation and other states. Recommended actions to improve incomes — to raise the economic standard of living of Arizonans — are discussed. The issue was examined previously in the February 2010 Office of the University Economist report "The Magnitude and Causes of Arizona's Low Per Capita Income." 

The Geographic Distribution of Average Earnings Per Worker, May 2017
Average earnings per worker is analyzed by state and metropolitan area. The earnings figures are adjusted for the cost of living and for job quality. In addition, the relationship between earnings data for metropolitan areas and metro area size as measured by employment is examined.

Job Quality in the Metropolitan Areas of the United States, May 2017
An extension of the March 2017 report on job quality, this report examines the industrial job mix, the occupational job mix, and job quality in 2015 and the change between 2001 and 2015 for all metropolitan areas.

Job Quality in 2015 and the Change in Job Quality Between 2001 and 2015, March 2017
Examines job quality in Arizona and in subregions of the state relative to the national average. Also looks at job quality by state and for large metropolitan areas.

Measures of Prosperity and Productivity Adjusted for the Cost of Living, August 2014
Compares states and metropolitan areas on several indicators of productivity and prosperity, such as per capita personal income, with the indicators adjusted by a new measure of the cost of living.

The Magnitude and Causes of Arizona's Low Per Capita Income, February 2010
Explains why incomes in Arizona are below the national average, presents ways in which the shortfall may be addressed, and describes the differences between the various income measures that are available.

High-Wage Jobs, May 2006
An offshoot of the work on job quality, this report examines high-wage jobs in the United States, Arizona, and other states.

Job Quality: 2004 Update, March 2006
An update of the initial analysis of job quality conducted in 2005, which presented a new way to calculate job quality nationally and by state.

     Arizona Job Quality Through 2003, June 2005

     National Job Quality Through 2003, June 2005

     Introduction to Job Quality, March 2005

Jobs, Income and Growth in Arizona: Individual Versus Aggregate Measures of Economic Performance, March 2005
Compares Arizona's mediocre performance on per employee and per capita measures to its fast growth on overall measures.

Related Articles and Reports

New Hires Quality Index, W. E. Upjohn Institute

Making Jobs Good, Center for Economic and Policy Research, April 2013

A Future of Good Jobs? America's Challenge in the Global Economy, W. E. Upjohn Institute, 2008

Opportunities at Work: Improving Job Quality, Center for Law and Social Policy, September 2007

Assessing Job Quality, Economic Policy Institute, July 27, 2004

Related Links

Arizona Office of Economic Opportunity, Arizona Labor Statistics

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research